Major farm implement companies, which had far more resources than did the Rust brothers, entered what may be called the cotton harvester sweepstakes. Fite, Gilbert C. Cotton Fields No More: Southern Agriculture, 1865-1980. The mechanization of cotton did indeed proceeded slowly. See more ideas about Arkansas, Cotton … Similar to today’s massive machines, Whitney’s cotton gin used hooks to draw unprocessed cotton through a small-mesh screen that separated the fiber from seeds and husks. The demonstration was a success. When he was a kid picking cotton by hand, he remembered how the dew caused the cotton to stick to his fingers, and how his grandmother moistened the spindle on her spinning wheel to get the cotton to adhere. In late 1948 cotton farmers near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, suffered from a labor shortage. After the war, International Harvester constructed Memphis Works, a huge cotton picker factory located on the north side of the city, and manufactured the first pickers in 1949. “The Cotton Harvester in Retrospect: Labor Displacement or Replacement.” Journal of Economic History 46 (March 1986): 199-216. I jumped out of bed, found some absorbent cotton and a nail for testing. Other inventers had used spindles with barbs, which twisted the fibers around the spindle and pulled the lint from the boll. Other inventors had tried designs with a barbed spindle to twist cotton fibers onto the spindle and then pull the cotton from the boll, but these early designs were impra… After the 1942 caravan, Fowler McCormick, chairman of the board of International Harvester, formally announced that his company had a commercial cotton picker ready for production. After three years of work, Harvester realized that a skilled hand picker could easily pick faster than their pneumatic machine. Now, to pick cotton you must have a cotton sack with a strap around your shoulder that is at least 20 feet long. Cotton and African-American Life 22b. They were people with skills and thus possessed high employment potential. “Will the Machine Ruin the South?” Saturday Evening Post 219 (May 31, 1947): 36-37, 94-95, 388. The Second Great Emancipation: The Mechanical Cotton Picker, Black Migration, and How They Shaped the Modern South (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000), 178. “You are still on the plantation.”. Early cotton defoliat… When a new hand, one unaccustomed to the business, is sent for the first time into the field, he is whipped up smartly, and made for that day to pick as fast as he can possibly. The Rust brothers’ machine provoked the fear that a mechanical picker would destroy the South’s sharecropping system and, during the Great Depression, throw millions of people out of work. Living in linen country, I may not have a lot of experience growing cotton. I've worked with cotton fibre of course, from boll and prepared fibre, but never successfully grown it. John was intrigued with the challenge of constructing a mechanical cotton picker. The most peculiar sight in northeast Arkansas was flocks of weed-hungry geese that sauntered through cotton fields. The cotton economy had close ties to the Northern banking industry, New England textile factories and the economy of Great Britain. After fighting more weeds and insects than we have seen in several years, most cotton fields still have a good yield potential. This was enough for me to realize I didn't care for it much. Deere and Company of Moline, Illinois, had experimented with stripper-type harvesters and variations of the spindle idea, but discontinued these experiments in 1931. When picking the cotton and the bolls would open up with very sharp needles on the tip of each hull. The cotton dries and fluffs up before being ready for harvesting. People sometimes use this term in other cases, like keep your cotton-picking hands off of that.They use it when they want to use stronger language, but don’t want to use swear words. Definition: Wait a gosh darn minute! “They feel ‘this is not going on we have a Black president.' Wearing only a blanket, she escaped and told police she was certain she could identify the man who had been inches from her face. Daily News editorialized that the Rust machine “should be driven right out of the cotton fields and sunk into the Mississippi River.”. My sister took care of the baby at the end of the cotton rows under a shade tree but sometimes it would ride on one of our cotton sacks through the fields. But the problem was how to remove the lint from the barbs. This research is for my upcoming book: Might Oughta Keep Singin'. The control of weeds with herbicides was the last labor peak to be conquered. Environmental conditions produced smaller cotton plants, not the “rank” cotton in the Delta, and small plants favored machine picking. By the mid-1930s the widespread use of mechanical cotton harvesters seemed imminent and inevitable. It's a new day and a new way for America. Although the first Rust picker was not without serious deficiencies, it did pick cotton and the demonstration attracted considerable national press coverage. We use cotton to make everything from clothing and rope to fishing nets, coffee filters, and paper. Source: United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. People deserted the cotton areas because they hoped to obtain better jobs and more money elsewhere. Mechanical cotton picking machines were developed from the 1880s, but were not perfected until the 1940s, and did not begin to be used extensively until the 1950s. It is equipped with a bigger hopper which can extend the picking time greatly and boast large capacity in the field. Machine Harvested Cotton as a Percentage of the Total Cotton Crop, Arkansas, California, South Carolina, and U.S. Average, 1949-1972. The elder Smith said talking about the documentary and pre-showings of the film revealed that a significant number of people know firsthand, based on having family members still on the plantations, or themselves growing up in slavery but choose to remain silent. During and after World War II, the Cotton South was caught up in a complex interplay of economic forces. As early as 1951, more than half of California’s cotton crop was mechanically harvested, with hand picking virtually eliminated by the 1960s. If cotton had been selling for $2 a pound when I was a kid, my whole life might have changed. China still 100% hand picks its cotton harvest as does India. It is out of sight and out of mind for those who know slavery exists, he added. In 1850 Samuel S. Rembert and Jedediah Prescott of Memphis, Tennessee, received the first patent for a cotton harvester from the U.S. Patent Office, but it was almost a century later that a mechanical picker was commercially produced. Enjoyed your memories of the time, though. The age of Agri-Business had arrived. 1. Most of the out-migration from the South stemmed from a desire to obtain high paying jobs in northern industries, not from an “enclosure” movement motivated by landowners who mechanized as rapidly as possible. Corn bound for human consumption took another 6 percent. After World War II southern farmers faced a world that had changed. Today in America there are two different types of machines that … “African-American Migration and Mechanized Cotton Harvesting, 1950-1960.” Explorations in Economic History 31 (October 1994): 501-20. The weeks-long process normally began in September. An overseer or master measured each individual slave’s daily yield. Eventually, machines used rotating teeth to do the job, producing a thin "lap" ready for carding. Western cotton growers embraced mechanization earlier than did southern farmers. The baskets are carried to the field and placed at the beginning of the rows. Though push factors played some role in the migration, pull factors were more important. One agricultural economist predicted that mechanical cotton picking would become reality over the next ten or fifteen years. Todays cutting-edge machin… In the 1880s Angus Campbell of Chicago, Illinois, was an agricultural engineer who saw the tedious process of picking cotton. It's cotton pickin' time in the South, and the fields located near our house are snowy white with cotton that's ready to be harvested. “We want to make people aware about what's going on so we can stop what's going on,” Tobias Smith said. When you pick cotton your fingers get pricked from the cotton burs. Cotton, perhaps more than anything else, was the driving economic force in the creation of Alabama. SSSSS. Long answer/explanation: Slaves did a lot of cotton picking in the South. Today, cotton pickers can pick cotton from up to six rows at a time. I remembered how cotton used to stick to my fingers when I was a boy picking in the early morning dew. The Hopson Planting Company near Clarksdale, Mississippi, produced the first cotton crop totally without the use of hand labor. Hand picking began to end in the 1940s with the invention of mechanical pickers. When in 1935 the Rust brothers moved to Memphis, the self-styled headquarters of the Cotton South, John Rust announced flatly, “The sharecropper system of the Old South will have to be abandoned.” The Rust picker could do the work of between 50 and 100 hand pickers, reducing labor needs by 75 percent. The haunting images show black laborers picking cotton under the blistering hot sun, cutting Burley tobacco and putting it on sticks to wilt before taking it into the curing and drying barn. They also had better than average educations. Ultimately, the need to chop and thin cotton was a problem of plant genetics. Carlson, Oliver. The Smiths said the areas are isolated, deep inland from main roads and “far away from civilization,” where plantation owners do what they want. Statistics on Cotton and Related Data, 1920-1973, Statistical Bulletin No. One of my first memories is picking cotton with my mom in a field beside the frame house she and dad rented. “Revolution in Cotton.” American Mercury 34 (February 1935): 129-36. Hand picking was done either crouched over or on one’s knees. For almost a hundred years, it seemed, a successful cotton picker had … All the machines were sold, and Ben Pearson hired Rust as a consultant and manufactured Rust cotton pickers. The dry cotton is simply pulled from the bolls and stored until the seeds are ready to be removed from the raw cotton. John Rust, the man who was ultimately credited with the invention of the mechanical cotton picker, personified the popular image of the lone inventor working in his garage. Though the company had assembled experimental models for testing purposes, this event marked the first commercial production of mechanical cotton pickers. Street, James H. The New Revolution in the Cotton Economy: Mechanization and Its Consequences. Since cotton still stood unpicked in the fields at the end of the year, they invited Rust to demonstrate his picker. The most controversial issue raised by the introduction of the mechanical cotton harvester has been its role in the Great Migration. In 1964, the preemergence herbicide Treflan became a household word because of a television commercial. And every year for about three months, hundreds of thousands of workers are needed to do this work. International Harvester (IH) of Chicago, Illinois, had invented the popular Farmall tractor in 1924 and then experimented with pneumatic pickers. Other major cotton producing countries that still use a large manual labor force for picking cotton as it was done in America in … The result showed that mechanization accounted for less than 40 percent of the decrease in handpicking, while the other 60 percent was attributed to the decrease in the supply of labor caused by higher wages in manufacturing industries. This scene above is one that I've taken for granted because I've seen it all my life. Cooler fall weather means cotton defoliation is on the mind of many farmers in northern Alabama. In the second half of the twentieth century, the South underwent a second great emancipation as revolutionary changes swept the region that earlier were unattainable and even unimaginable. Their wagon held up to 1,400 pounds of cotton. PICKING COTTON: Our Memoir of Injustice & Redemption. Wright, Gavin. This industry grew rapidly but was dependant on manual labor for picking cotton and removing the seeds. This was enough for me to realize I didn't care for it much. Table 1 Other module feeders are self-propelled, moving down a track alongside the modules. "Off The Reservation" This one, thankfully, is not all that common any more — which is good, as its … In the decades leading up to the Civil War, the southern states experienced extraordinary change that would define the region and its role in American history for decades, even centuries, to come. To join the newsletters or submit a posting go to, http://eh.net/encyclopedia/mechanical-cotton-picker/. “Exit King Cotton.” Harper’s 192 (May 1946): 473-80. Cotton was 'king' in the plantation economy of the Deep South. In other words, they were not a collection of pathetic sharecroppers who had been driven off the land. Along with Mae Louise Miller, the film also features commentary from activist/comedian Dick Gregory, Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree and others. The sooner this [is] done, the better for the entire South. These 5 Crops Are Still Hand-Harvested, And It's Hard Work : The Salt Saffron, vanilla, palm oil, cacao and cottonseed oil crops are still picked by hand in some parts of the world. The transmission was reversed so that it still used forward gears. It grows in 17 southern U.S. states, stretching from Louisiana and Texas to Virginia. The spindle soon became clogged with lint, leaves, and other debris. The cotton gin, patented by American-born born inventor Eli Whitney in 1794, revolutionized the cotton industry by greatly speeding up the tedious process of removing seeds and husks from cotton fiber. The first practical cotton picker was invented over a period of years beginning in the late 1920s by John Daniel Rust (1892–1954) with the later help of his brother Mack Rust. Still, the prospects for the future were grim. Thus the mechanization of cotton was an essential condition for the civil rights movement in the 1950s, which freed the region from Jim Crow. The end of sharecropping also signaled the end of the need for cheap, docile labor — always a prerequisite of plantation agriculture. This to put the cotton in when the sack is filled. Module feeders break the modules apart and feedthe cotton into the gin. Whatley, Warren C. “New Estimates of the Cost of Harvesting Cotton: 1949-1964.” Research in Economic History 13 (1991): 199-225. William E. Ayres, head of the Delta Experiment Station, encouraged Rust: We sincerely hope you can arrange to build and market your machine shortly. Popular opinion has accepted the view that machines eliminated jobs and forced poor families to leave their homes and farms in a forlorn search for urban jobs. A portion of Xinjiang’s cotton production has been mechanized but even today about 70% of the cotton is still being picked by hand. Sep 18, 2020 - My father grew up on a cotton sharecropping farm in Lonoke County, Arkansas. Origin of Cotton Picking Minute. Pneumatic harvesters removed cotton fiber from the bolls with suction or a blast of air. It would take another century for American ingenuity to finally rid the world of the need for hand picking cotton. He quickly designed a machine that added water to his spindles, and that approach was the one that IH used in their cotton combines. The first commercial production of mechanical cotton pickers were manufactured in 1949, and these machines did not exist in large numbers until the early 1950s. In the process of interviewing Ms. Miller about her life as a 20th century slave in America, the Smiths learned from her that slavery was still being practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana today. “After the show I prayed a lot and my dad had been wanting to do a documentary and God told me this is the documentary he ought to do,” said Tobias Smith, who is also an independent hip hop recording artist. Deere quickly regained the ground it had lost during the depression. Picking: After the fiber of choice was harvested, picking was the process that followed. Cotton can be picked one of several ways. The picker had a … The same was true in the 1960s except that the white population showed a net gain, not a loss. A decade later, most of the nation’s cotton was still hand picked. The gin made it possible to supply large quantities of cotton fiber to the fast-growing textile industry. Picking Cotton By Jennifer Thompson-Cannino and Ronald Cotton ISBN 13: 978-1-4299-6215-5 ISBN 10: 1-4299-6215-1 About this Guide The following author biography and list of questions about Picking Cotton are intended as resources to aid individual readers and book groups who would like to … 535 (Wash­ing­ton: Government Printing Office, 1974), 218. Our babies are dying, where are our friends? Then the filmmakers were taken to Glendora, Miss., and Webb, Miss., where they said they saw and documented the existence of plantations. Picking Cotton.....Hard Back Breaking Work...My Dad picked cotton in the 1960's Picking removed foreign matter (dirt, insects, leaves, seeds) from the fiber. Rust entered into an agreement with Ben Pearson, a Pine Bluff company known for archery equipment, to produce 100 machines for $1,000 each, paid in advance. Mack did the mechanical work, while John was the dreamer who worried about the social consequences of their invention. *The selected counties lost population, but Louisiana statewide recorded a population gain for the decade. Taking advantage of the toughness of cotton stalks, flame weeders used a flammable gas to kill weeds. There are two general mechanical harvesters used to pick cotton bolls. But cotton picking amounted to only part of the growing process. The failure to end the international boycott on Uzbek cotton and draw in new investors could hobble the sector’s long-term development, which … Shop for cotton picking art prints from our community of independent artists and iconic brands. I … The stripper type harvester combed the plant with teeth or drew it between stationary slots or teeth. Cotton picking machine is designed for cotton picking, it can fulfill the cotton-picking operation in 66+10cm or 68+8cm width of cotton planting mode. “The Social Effects of Recent Trends in the Mechaniza­tion of Agriculture.” Rural Sociology 4 (March 1939): 3-19. Such scales were customarily used in cotton fields to weigh each worker's daily pickings, which were the basis of pay. Western farmers also did not have to overcome the burden of an antiquated labor system. Cotton-picking in this expression is a euphemism for a swear word, and it adds emphasis. Cotton, seed-hair fiber of several species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family. In the 1880s Angus Campbell of Chicago, Illinois, was an agricultural engineer who saw the tedious process of picking cotton. Soon a less strident and more balanced view emerged. It remains for cotton harvesting machinery to emancipate the Southern cotton planter. Picking Cotton By Rayburn Hall November 04, 2001 at 04:16:32. Most of the Arkansas migrants, for example, were young people from farm families who saw little future in agriculture. There were probably still black people picking cotton in the 1960s, as it took time for the new machiens to catch on. The plant’s location clearly showed that the company aimed its pickers for use in the cotton areas of the Mississippi River Valley. Once the bolls start to crack open, the fluffy cotton starts to push out of the covering. But whether the majority worked as cotton pickers I don't know. However, the rearing of livestock (including the raising of feed) took nearly as much labor time of slaves – about 25 percent. Though sharecropping stifled the region’s attempts to mechanize, too many farmers, both tenants and owners, were trying to survive on small, uneconomical farms, trapping themselves in poverty. Nov 21, 2012 - Migrant farm workers, 1940. The thresher type cut down the plant near the surface of the ground and took the entire plant into the machine, where the cotton fiber was separated from the vegetable material. As a boy, he had picked cotton himself, and he dreamed that he could invent a machine that would relieve people of one of the most onerous forms of stoop labor. Jennifer Thompson was raped at knifepoint by a man who broke into her apartment while she slept. The Jackson (Miss.) Eli Whitney’s cotton gin, which at the start of the 19th century made large-scale cotton growing profitable, pumped new life into the fading institution of slavery, ensuring that something much like slavery would last long after the Civil War. Peterson, Willis, and Yoav Kislev. According to the Smiths, there are many who know that slavery didn't end with the Emancipation Proclamation nearly 150 years ago. In 1944 the company resumed work after buying the Berry patents, though Deere’s machine incorporated its own innovative designs. In 1940 chief engineer C. R. Hagen abandoned the idea of a tractor that pulled the picking unit. What was so bad is when you start a row to pick and you get little more than half way down toward the end and here you have a sack full and you have to lift the sack up over your shoulder and start walking. Source: Hope T. Eldridge and Dorothy S. Thomas, Population Redistribution and Economic Growth, vol. "By the mid-1950s, we started using traveling cotton pickers on our place," West Texas cotton-picking veteran Roger Moore of Austin remembers. He finally hit on the answer: use a smooth, moist spindle. He must bring in the same weight each night following. Customize your cotton picking print with hundreds of different frames and mats, if … Lincoln emancipated the Southern Negro. IH then bought up the Price-Campbell patents and turned to spindle pickers. Manual picking of cotton is prevalent in the remaining counties that produce it. (See Table 2.) Other times, machines are used. Since the fiber is pervasive in what we wear, eat, and use on a daily basis, its easy to forget that it comes from a crop, and must be harvested each and every year to meet worldwide demand. Because cotton is so light, only the most proficient workers could pick 300 pounds. Prior to the 1930s, cotton harvesting was done entirely by picking cotton by hand end—it wasn’t until a man named John Rust came up with a “harvesting locomotive” in the late 1930s that any semblance of harvesting innovation became a reality. Yes, slavery still exists in 2010 in Mississippi and Louisiana, says Timothy Arden Smith, who captured the story in a soon to be released documentary called “The Cotton Pickin' Truth … Still on the Plantation,” which will premiere Sept. 23 at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African-American History in Detroit. The late nineteenth century was an age of inventions, and many inventors sought to perfect a mechanical cotton harvester. The late nineteenth century was an age of inventions, and many inventors sought to perfect a mechanical cotton harvester. Professional agricultural men saw the mechanization of cotton as a gradual process. It would take another century for American ingenuity to finally rid the world of the need for hand picking cotton. Textile - Textile - The weaving process: Woven cloth is normally much longer in one direction than the other. Reprinted in Readers’ Digest 26 (March 1935): 13-16. The picker or spindle idea drew the most attention. Cotton accounts for about $27 billion in revenue for U.S. businesses, with total benefit to the U.S. economy estimated near $100 billion annually. A trailer for the film can be viewed at http://www.theprofitmusic.com. In the 1730’s England began to spin cotton and developed a textile industry. This cotton weigh-up scale was a gift of James W. Butler and came from the H. H. Hopson Plantation near Clarksdale, Mississippi. Every ounce hand-picked. Rust expected to put the machine on the market within a year. From 1910 to 1970 the Great Migration, which included whites as well as blacks, reduced the region’s oversupply of small farmers and embodied a tremendous success story for both migrants and the region itself. Timothy Smith pointed out that the film gives meaning to the human experience and how most people are yet enslaved on one level or another. Hand labor was pulled out of the Cotton South by higher industrial wages rather than displaced by job-destroying machines. But when slavery was abolished what happened to the cotton industry? Within 10 years, the value of the U.S. cotton crop rose from $150,000 to more than $8 million. The structure of southern agriculture changed as the number of farms declined steadily, while the size of farms increased. If picking by hand, pull the cotton out of the boll using your fingers. As he later recalled: The thought came to me one night after I had gone to bed. Since the Great Migration began during World War I, mechanical pickers cannot have played any causal role in the first four decades of the migration. ”. Cotton has been cultivated for over 5,000 years, and only halfway through the 20th century did modern farming methods move away from handpicking and horse plowing. For twenty years he made annual trips to Texas to test the latest model his spindle picker, but his efforts met with ridicule. The migration solved the long-standing problem of rural overpopulation, and did so without producing social upheaval. Campbell joined with Theodore H. Price and formed the Price-Campbell Cotton Picker Corporation in 1912. Johnston, Oscar. Whatley, Warren C. “A History of Mechanization in the Cotton South: The Institutional Hypothesis.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 100 (November 1985): 1191-1215. By 1950, soon after the first mechanical cotton pickers were commercially available, over six million migrants had already left the South. Nevertheless, the Rust's company did not have the capability of manufacturing cotton pickers in significant quantities. He was usually associated with his younger brother Mack Donald Rust, who had a degree in mechanical engineering. But I've discovered that so many of you are interested in cotton, and that discovery started with this box of cotton that I sent my friend Ann from On Sutton Place. The migrants found jobs and improved their living standards, and simultaneously rural areas were relieved of their overpopulation. In the late 1800s cotton was accounting for over half of the U.S. exports, and slaves were being used to pick all the cotton. Hiram M. Berry of Greenville, Mississippi, designed a picker with barbed spindles, though it was never perfected. Hamilton, C. Horace. During the 1950s these counties accounted for less than half of the total white migration from the three-state region and just over half of the black migration. Each cotton picking art print is produced using archival inks, ships within 48 hours, and comes with a 30-day money back guarantee! With minor exceptions, most tasks — plowing, cultivating, and finally harvesting cotton — were done by hand. Mary Hyatt (author) from Florida on June 14, 2012: Hi larawieck, I'm not sure if cotton was grown in Cuba; might be too tropical , I'm just not sure. Hands that once picked cotton now pick presidents. 93-95. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1969. According to the Smiths, there are many who know that slavery didn't end with the Emancipation Proclamation nearly 150 years ago. Compared to Migration Estimates for Cotton Counties, 1950-1970. Rated up, Mary! At night it is weighed, so that his capability in cotton picking is known. Instead of driving the tractor forward, the tractor moved backward enabling the picking unit to encounter the cotton plants first. In 1850 Samuel S. Rembert and Jedediah Prescott of Memphis, Tennessee, received the first patent for a cotton harvester from the U.S. Patent Office, but it was almost a century later that a mechanical picker was commercially produced. Until the 1960s cotton growers did not have a full set of technological tools to mechanize all labor peaks. Old South, New South: Revolutions in the Southern Economy since the Civil War. Today, so many products are created from cotton. The consensus of opinion was that cotton would always be picked by hand. Wait a Cotton Picking Minute Meaning. Indeed, mechanization made possible the continuation of cotton farming in the post-plantation era. These days, more and more people are trying their hand at growing cotton, whether its to live a self-sufficient lifestyle, to learn an ancient craft, or to make a little cash. 3 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1964), 90. In 1936, the Rust machine received a public trial at the Delta Experiment Station near Leland, Mississippi. ), Figure 1. Cotton planters projected the amount of cotton they could harvest based on the number of slaves under their control. Schools didn’t start until after its completion. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1957. Most cotton fields are maturing rapidly, due in large part to limited late season rains. He cited his colleagues in the media industry who choose to focus on partying and frivolity, fearful of taking on a serious issue such as slavery in modern America. W hether they like it or not, almost every Uzbek’s life has involved cotton picking. More than half a million people from ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang have been coerced into picking cotton, on a scale far greater than previously thought, new research has suggested.. SSSSS. Holley (2000) used an empirical analysis to compare the impact of mechanization and manufacturing wages on the labor available for picking cotton. Modern cotton picking machinery can separate cotton fibers from the plant in a way that promotes incredibly efficient processing and distribution. Indeed, the gin increased by fifty times what a single person could process in a day. Migration figures also provide a comparison of statewide migration estimates in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi with estimates for counties that actually used mechanical pickers (79 of 221 counties or parishes). 10 minutes while it takes a cotton picker Development. ” agricultural engineering 32 ( November ). Can be viewed at http: //eh.net/encyclopedia/mechanical-cotton-picker/ on so we can stop what 's going on we! Price-Campbell machine performed poorly, but I recall it as a Percentage of the,. Cotton ” predicted the end of the Deep South 32 ( November 1951 ): 199-216 sack is.... 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